Describe the variables/phenomenon of interest. If this is a comparison study, on what variable(s)…

  1. State the research question posed by the authors.
    Was the research question clear?
    Was the need for the study adequately substantiated? Explain.
  2. Describe the sample/participants in the study.
    How was the sample selected (eligibility criteria)?
    How is the sample representative of the population of interest?
  3. Describe the variables/phenomenon of interest. If this is a comparison study, on what variable(s) are the groups being compared? If it is a correlation study, what variables were being examined for a potential relationship? Were there any confounding variables? If it is a qualitative study, what questions or methods were used to collect the data?
  4. In a quantitative study, was the sample size large enough to detect a statistically significant association or difference? Was a power analysis performed? In a qualitative study, was saturation reached?
  5. Were there any potential sources of bias?
    (For example: differences between groups not accounted for in the analysis, dropouts, discounting outcomes, funding agency.)
    If so, how were they addressed in the article?
  6. For quantitative studies using assessment instruments, describe the reliability and validity of the measures. Were the measures appropriate for the population or the variable being studied? Explain.
    For qualitative studies, describe how the researchers collected data from their participants (e.g., interviews, focus groups).
  7. What was the design of the study (quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods)? How were the data collected: one time (cross-sectional) or repeated over time (longitudinal)? What were the limitations of the data collection methods?
  8. Were the analysis plans (statistical methods or coding) described in detail? For qualitative, how were the data distributed (e.g., normal versus skewed)? Were the correlative and comparative tests appropriate for the type of data analyzed and the questions asked? Explain.
    For qualitative data, how did the researchers interpret the data, and what themes were identified?
    II. What are the results/findings?
  9. What were the findings?
  10. Was there clinical significance? Statistical significance?
    III. How can you apply the results/findings?
  11. What relevance do the findings have to counseling practice?
  12. Discuss how the findings can be generally applied to practice.
    Identify one specific action that could be utilized in a session with a client.

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