Obstructive sleep apnea

Can you help me understand this Nursing question?

hello, I would like you to use the references I provided and also follow the outline provided. The rubric is attached and it should be in third person, apa format, 1800 words. In cite citations as well. Thank you!

Obstructive sleep apnea and Cardiovascular disease

MY OUTLINE

  1. INTRODUCTION
  1. Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is an underrecognized and underdiagnosed medical condition, with a myriad of negative consequences on patients’ health and society as a whole. Undetected obstructive sleep apnea can lead to heart disease, depression, and even death.
  2. General info: Sleep apnea is an important target for public health interventions aiming at reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death among adults in developed countries. When left untreated, sleep apnea gradually induces cognitive deficits and poor performance.
  3. THESIS: OSA can both worsen existing medical conditions and influence the onset of new disease. Patients with OSA are more likely to develop higher rates of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, stroke, and even death.
  4. Transition: OSA can be measured by using an apnea-hypopnea index, which records the number of times per hour of sleep that a patient experiences an abnormally low respiratory rate or complete cessation of breathing.
  1. SECTION 1
  1. Disturbed sleep patterns lead to increased levels of daytime somnolence, which can cause days of missed work and increased levels of motor vehicle and occupational accidents.
  2. What happens with Obstructive sleep apnea in a patient? As the patient falls asleep, muscles of the nasopharynx begin to relax and the surrounding tissue collapses, causing compromise of the airway. As oxygen levels in the body start to drop and carbon dioxide levels rise, the patient is aroused from sleep; this causes an increase in sympathetic tone and contraction of nasopharyngeal tissue, which allows alleviation of the obstruction.
  3. The common symptoms of OSA include signs of disturbed sleep such as snoring and restlessness, interruptions of regular respiratory patterns during sleep, and daytime symptoms such as fatigue or trouble concentrating that are connected to disrupted sleep patterns at night.
  4. The cycle continues throughout the night, causing decreased time spent in rapid eye movement sleep and an overall decrease in quality of sleep.
  1. SECTION 2
  1. There are some factors that play a role in the development of OSA. For example, Alcohol and tobacco use have strong associations with the development and progression of obstructive symptoms.
  2. Alcohol, as well as benzodiazepines and other central nervous system depressants, preferentially inhibit upper airway muscle activity while also depressing the respiratory centers of the brain. Tobacco use alone causes a threefold increase in risk of OSA, as observed in smokers compared to nonsmokers.
  3. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease have common risk factors including age, gender, race/ethnicity, and obesity, which could confound the observed associations.
  1. SECTION 3
  1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects at least 5% of the adult population, and is associated with increased risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and mortality.
  2. OSA increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and atrial fibrillation (AF), especially in men. Small or non-controlled studies support the use of CPAP as a means of reducing cardiovascular morbidity.
  3. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with elevated blood pressure, non-dipping blood pressure, and resistant hypertension. Mechanisms relate to augmented sympathetic nervous system activation, and possibly to increased levels of hormones that influence fluid balance, such as aldosterone. Treatment with CPAP may reduce systolic blood pressure on average by 2 to 5 mmHg.
  1. CONCLUSION
  1. Patients with OSA are more likely to develop higher rates of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, stroke, and even death. The relationships between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease are rather complex.
  2. The relationships between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease are rather complex.

RESEARCH PAPER REQUIREMENTS

Before final grading all papers should meet the following criteria:

  • Paper is typed in TNR font size 12, double-spaced with one-inch margins
  • Title page is correctly formatted.
  • Abstract(do this last) and reference pages are present.
  • Reference page is properly cited.
  • Sources appear to be credible (Websites from .org .gov .edu ect..)
  • Minimum of 5 scholarly sources listed on reference page
  • Minimum of two direct quotations cited in paper properly cited.
  • Thesis statement is in bold type.
  • Thesis statement is an argument/statement on a position/ analyzes and issue or idea.
  • 1 Tables, diagrams, and/or graphs are included with a description and reference underneath.
  • Paper is written in 3rd person.
  • Paper is between 1800 words – From introduction-conclusion


Category

4

3

2

1

  1. APA Formatted Paper

Paper appears professional and uniform. All areas are all TIMES NR, 12, 1 inch margins, double spaced. Title Page, Paper Body, Reference Page, and Appendix are all included formatted correctly. All material needed for each section are included. Paper may also include headings/sections.

Majority of all areas needed for paper are included. One section may be missing or a couple formatting issues may be present. Formatting and sections add to the organization or the paper. All areas are TIMES NR, 12, 1 inch margins, double spaced.

Half of all areas needed in an APA formatted research page are included. Formatting issues are present throughout. Paper overall does appear to be organized. Font format is generally correct.

Under half of the sections required for an APA formatted research paper are included. Paper is not uniform, professional, and organized. Correct font, font size, and spacing is not used.

2. Arguable/Analytical Thesis Statement

(bolded)

Original/unique,clear, argumentative/analytical thesis is included. Thesis is strong enough to provide the framework for the paper. Thesis is bolded in the introduction.

Argumentative/analytical thesis is included and easy to understand. Thesis may not be strong enough to write an entire paper though.

Thesis statement is not an argument or analytical. More thought it needed in this area to complete paper.

Thesis statement is not included at all.

3.Plagiarism Issues, Paraphrasing/Direct Quotes cited and written properly

Two to Five direct quotes included and cited properly. DQ’s selected complement paper material. Paraphrased information is cited properly. No plagiarism issues at all.

Two to five direct quotes are included and the majority are cited properly. DQ’s selected match research paper topic and thesis. Most paraphrased information are cited correctly. No plagiarism issues.

Either too many or not enough direct quotes are included. One selected may not complement the research paper. Under half of paraphrased material is cited correctly. Slight plagiarism issues.

Blatant plagiarism occurs or plagiarism issues are apparent. Citations may not be present and paraphrasing is not completed correctly. Either too many direct quotes are included or none at all.

4. 1 Graphs, Medical Images, Tables, etc. correctly present

1 piece of data is included. Format and citation are correct. Paragraph is included that follows the steps to describe the data. Data directly correlates and and supports thesis statement.

1 piece of data is included. Format and citation are basically correct but a few corrections are needed. Paragraph is included that follows the steps to describe the data. Data relates to thesis statement.

Data is included; however, Format and citations are either missing or incorrect. Paragraph describing data is generally correct. Data used may not support thesis or is interpreted inaccurately.

Data is not included or data included does not have paragraph explaining it. Data may also not support thesis or be interpreted inaccurately.

5. Demonstrates Analysis and Synthesis

Presents compelling analysis/interpretation of information that is accurate, complete, and relevant to purpose, thesis, and audience. Shows substantial evidence of synthesis of information from multiple sources.

Presents analysis/interpretation of information that is accurate, and relevant to purpose, thesis, and audience.Shows evidence of synthesis of information from multiple sources.

Attempts to present analysis/interpretation of information; however, it may not be accurate, complete, or relevant. Shows insufficient evidence of synthesis of information from multiple sources.

Presents little or no analysis/interpretation of information or analysis of information is inaccurate. Shows little or no evidence of synthesis of information from multiple sources.

6. Evidence of 5 valid sources used equally

Evidence present of five scholarly sources used equally.

Evidence present of five scholarly sources used.

Sources are not used equally or evidence of five scholarly sources is not present.

Evidence is present of less than three scholarly sources used and may not be used equally.

7. Reference page attached and correct

Minimum of five sources on reference page. All sources referenced in paper are present on Reference page. Reference page is formatted and cited correctly, no errors.

Minimum of five sources on reference page. Most sources referenced in paper are present on Reference page. Reference page is formatted and cited correctly, with slight errors.

Minimum of five sources on reference page. Not all references used in paper are on the reference page. Reference page is not formatted or cited correctly.

Under five sources present on reference and what is included is not formatted or cited correctly or reference page is not included

8. Length, Grammar, and Punctuation

Paper is 1800 words (at least 7 pages). Paper is in 3rd person throughout. Punctuation,

spelling, capitalization, and grammar are correct. No errors.

Paper is slightly under word count.Paper is in 3rd person most of the time. Punctuation, spelling,

capitalization, and grammar are generally correct.

Paper at least 1200 words (at least 7 pages). Paper is not 3rd person for most of the time.

Many errors in spelling, grammar, and/or punctuation.

Paper does not meet word count.

Many errors in spelling, grammar, and/or punctuation.

Errors drastically impede paper readability.

Paper is not in 3rd person.

Score out of 32 Points:___________________ (22.25/32 passing)%

Comments:

References

Motamedi, K. K., McClary, A. C., & Amedee, R. G. (2009). Obstructive sleep apnea: a growing problem. (No volume or issue # on this source). The Ochsner journal. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096276/.

Jean-Louis, G., Zizi, F., Clark, L. T., Brown, C. D., & McFarlane, S. I. (2008, June 15). Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: role of the metabolic syndrome and its components. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (No issue # on this source). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546461/.

Redline, S., Yenokyan, G., Gottlieb, D. J., Shahar, E., O’Connor, G. T., Resnick, H. E., … Punjabi, N. M. (2010, July 15). Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea and incident stroke: the sleep heart health study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. (No issue # on this source). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2913239/.

Monahan, K., & Redline, S. (2011, November). Role of obstructive sleep apnea in cardiovascular disease. Current opinion in cardiology. (No issue # on this source). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3268043/.

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