Respond in a paragraph the discussion board. In your response, do not just agree or disagree, tell the reason for your response. Your response must be at least 100 words. Each answer separately. Use A

Respond in a paragraph the discussion board. In your response, do not just agree or disagree, tell the reason for your response. Your response must be at least 100 words. Each answer separately. Use APA 7.

Peer 1

Week 5 Post

Laura Lledo Rodriguez

Week 5 Post

Ethical issues might arise in research that can result in bias outcomes. The researcher faced several ethical issues that were related to the participation of student including nature of participation as well as informed consent. The researcher did not adhere to protocols for informed consent and autonomy to withdraw or participate in the study. Collaboration and participation should be voluntary. Participants should be free to withdraw from the study without consequences. The involuntary nature of participation and lack of informed consent affected the overall results of the study, (Bell, et al., 2018).

The study resulted in an ethical dilemma for the action research team due to the lack of informed consent. One of the ways to resolve this issue is by honoring the participant’s autonomy to make informed decisions concerning participating in the study. Informed consent enables respondents to participate willingly without undue threats or coaching. In addition, it promotes a positive attitude and perception regarding research processes and objectives after and before completing the study. The researcher should also ensure that the principle of beneficence and justice is observed throughout the research procedure.

I believe that research requires extensive knowledge of statistics. Most of the research requires to calculate correlation, mean and medium. The main aim of a study is to identify, describe a concept, and predict or explain a situation or solution to a problem

The duties and responsibilities of researchers include writing proposals and delivering presentations where required (Mills, 2018). Following the strict code of ethics and protecting private and confidential data at all times. Interpreting research specification and coming up with a work plan that satisfies requirements. Conducting research by using books, interviews, gathering data, survey, journal articles, newspaper sources, polls, and questionnaire. Some of the digital research tools that are used by researchers include a blog, skype and wiki. The researcher should interpret, evaluate and analyze trends and patterns.

Record findings by taking written notes and using the appropriate software. Some of the software that the researcher can use include dragon mobile assistance, dragon dictate and dragon dictation. Dragon mobile assistance is a software application used for voice recognition. In addition, the researcher is responsible for protecting and maintaining electronic databases. Assisting with time schedules and budget and anticipating research issues and prompt resolving them. In general, a researcher is responsible for collecting data through experimenting, examining and inquiring. Experimenting involves observing. Techniques used to enquire include interviews, and questionnaires. Methods that are used for examining include maps, audio recording, video recording, artifacts and field notes.

I believe that the researcher should obtain informed consent from potential research participants. Researchers should avoid using deceptive practices. Roles should be assigned to the people participating in the research. Efforts should be made to report data in the most accurate way.

Flinders conceptual framework that reflects ethical beliefs includes utilitarian, deontological and relational perspective. I believe that researchers should avoid harm, ensure informed consent and confidentiality when carrying out research. When conducting qualitative research, it is essential to make judgements whether an action is correct or wrong based on the moral code. Deontology applies to theories although it is difficult to apply in real life. Utilitarian perspective states that an action should be taken by considering the positive outcome. This perception is accurate especially when addressing complicated situations.

Reference

Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2018).Business research methods. Oxford university press. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=J9J2DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=research &ots=GLivfg9VAP&sig=MgJY67JHNdUyXUOElW2FOP_Xqpc&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=research&f=false

Mills, G.E. (2018). Action Research. A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. Pearson.

Peer 2

Discussion Forum Week 5

Zulema Alonso Martínez

In chapter 5, the case study describes the ethical issue the action researchers faced in their study.

The ethical issue that was faced in the research pertains to the process of collecting research data. The researcher made a decision to target grades 4, 5, and 6. However, when it came to the process of collecting data, the research did not collect data from all classes. According to the researcher, only one class turned up, and that means that only data from one class was collected. The other worrying issue, in this case, is the attitude of the researcher. According to the researcher, when only one class showed up, the researcher was relieved data analysis would be simpler given that only a third of the expected data would be turned in.

Define why the study’s results created an ethical dilemma for the action research team and describe another way they could have resolved it.

The results created an ethical dilemma because they were not based on all three cases. Despite the fact that the two classes did not turn up for research processes, the researcher continued to conduct research using the same hypothesis. In short, the results were a representation of three classes irrespective of the fact that only one class showed up for the research project. The research results are affected by the processes in the respective research (Golder, Ahmed, Norman, & Booth, 2017). When the processes are ethical, the ethicality of the results ought not to be doubted or questioned. However, when the process of collecting, storing, or analyzing data is faced by ethical issues, there is a need for worry because the results cannot pass the ethical test if the processes of attaining the results were compromised (Cascio & Racine, 2018).

What are a researcher’s roles and responsibilities?

A researcher has a role in presenting data that is accurate. The researcher is the custodian of the integrity of research. He or she must ensure that all ethical guidelines have adhered to the letter. Credibility and accuracy are two aspects that a researcher has to promote (Macdonald, 2017). It is important to note that researches are conducted to answer specific questions. The researcher has a responsibility to make sure that the findings are not biased.

How are issues of informed consent, accuracy, deception, and social principles reflected in your ethical beliefs?

I believe that informed consent is paramount when it comes to collecting data. Participants should only share information out of their free will. Accuracy must be promoted by making sure that all figures are correctly listed (Resnik, 2018). Deception compromises the integrity of research, and therefore, it must be discouraged at all costs. Research does override the principles that members of society have put in place. The violation of any social principle is a violation of ethical codes of conduct in the field of research.

Which components of Flinders’s (1992) conceptual framework for guiding ethical conduct in qualitative research reflect your own ethical beliefs?

The conceptual framework for Flinders includes four points of view: utilitarian, ethics, relational and ecological. Consider the questions that arise from these four prospects in your endeavors to clarify your values and how these issues can contribute to your own ethical attitude.

References

Cascio, M. A., & Racine, E. (2018). Person-oriented research ethics: integrating relational and everyday ethics in research.Accountability in research,25(3), 170-197.

Flinders, D. J. (1992). In search of ethical guidance: Constructing a basis for dialogue.Qualitative studies in education,5(2), 101-115.

Golder, S., Ahmed, S., Norman, G., & Booth, A. (2017). Attitudes toward the ethics of research using social media: a systematic review.Journal of medical Internet research,19(6), e195.

Macdonald, S. (2017). Embedded ethics and research integrity: a response to ‘The Quest for Generic Ethics Principles in Social Science Research by David Carpenter. Finding Common Ground: Consensus in Research Ethics Across the Social Sciences, 29-35.

Mills, G. E. (2000). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.

Resnik, D. B. (2018).The ethics of research with human subjects: Protecting people, advancing science, promoting trust(Vol. 74). Springer.