that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles.

that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles. The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information and time intensive process that is not learned overnight.  To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.

Here’s how you should approach completing this week’s assignment to finish critiquing an article:

1. First, do your assigned reading in Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week. This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.

2. Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about.  Then, for this week, re-read carefully the first half of the article, starting with the abstract and stopping after the first paragraph of the results or “findings” section.

3. Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.

4. Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook. Some examples of these terms might be: problem statement, variables, and cross-sectional. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.

5. Once you have completed this assignment “on paper”, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus. Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that “this is a test” and carefully enter your answers from this document. 

6. You will have two access attempts to record your answers. This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so. You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt. Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.

If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help. Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.

Questions 1 – 4: Research Problem and Purpose. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 2, 5, and 12)

1.      Which choice below best reflects the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article?

a.      Caregiver stress has been reported in approximately 60% of caregivers.

b.      The purpose of the research study was to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress in adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care.

c.      Because identification of factors that reduce negative outcomes is vital to the psychological and physical health of informal caregivers, researchers should study the influence of self-efficacy on caregivers providing care to patients with diverse health conditions.

d.      Research shows the potential for self-efficacy to buffer negative physical outcomes resulting from caregiving, but the majority of studies of caregiver stress were conducted on informal caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer disease or dementia.

2.    Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article?

a.      The relationship between caregiver self-efficacy and caregiver stress among adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care for individuals with any health condition was investigated.

b.      The Pearlin Stress Process Model, which guided this study, describes informal caregiving as a dynamic set of processes that impact the overall health and well-being of the caregiver.

c.      To determine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress in adult informal        caregivers providing end-of-life care.

d.      Because identification of factors that reduce negative outcomes is vital to the psychological and physical health of informal caregivers, researchers should study the influence of self-efficacy on caregivers providing care to patients with diverse health conditions.

3. According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following statements are important when considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose(Select all that apply.)

a.      Does it build on previous research?

b.      Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study?

c.      Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings?

d.      Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study?

e.      Does it promote theory testing or development?

f.       Does it identify extraneous variables?

4. When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment.  Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article? (Select all that apply.)

a.      Funding sources for the study were clearly identified.

b.      The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are described.

c.      100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study.

d.      Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article.

Questions 5 – 7: Review of the Literature. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 6 & 12.)

5.  According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL):

a.      Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem.

b.      Explaining the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study.

c.      Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem.

d.      Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built.

6.  Select three MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below:

a.   The researcher administered three instruments: the Caregiver Inventory (CGI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Short Form 12v2 (SF12v12) Health Survey.

b.   Depression is the most frequently cited negative consequence of caregiving.

c.    Theoretically, individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy for caregiving will have a greater success in completing caregiving tasks, lower levels of psychological and physical illness, reduced rates of burnout, and greater levels of well-being compared with those with low levels of self-efficacy.

d.   A cross-sectional, associational design was used to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress in adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care.

e.   Advances in medical care and changes in health care delivery and reimbursement have resulted in a shift from inpatient to outpatient medical care across many service lines, including palliative care and hospice.

f.    Informal caregivers provide the bulk of care for elderly patients and those at the end of life.

7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”) is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article. This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criterion.  Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? (HINT-look for references in the ROL that are between 2013-2018.)

a.      22

b.      30

c.      25

d.      28

Questions 8 – 10: Study Framework. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 7 & 12)

8.  Which of these statements best describes this study’s research framework?

a.      This study has an implicit framework, which is not fully developed.

b.      To determine how caregivers’ self-efficacy influenced their perceived stress, we modeled the effect of CGI subscale scores on caregiver stress in a multivariate regression analysis.

c.      A cross-sectional, associational design was used to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress in adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care.

d.      The Pearlin Stress Process Model, which guided this study, describes informal caregiving as a dynamic set of processes that impact the overall health and well-being of the caregiver.

9.  What are some of the key concepts in this study’s theoretical framework?

a.      This study does not have any clearly defined concepts within a framework because it has an implicit framework.

b.      Primary stressors are the direct results of the care recipient’s disability, and secondary stressors are caregiving demands.

c.      This brief review focuses narrowly on the relationships between caregiver self-efficacy and caregiver mood and physical health.

d.      The purpose of the research study was to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress in adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care.

10.  Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical framework?

a.      In the study described here, the relationship between caregiver self-efficacy and caregiver stress among adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care for individuals with any health condition was investigated.

b.      The model also posits a set of mediators, such as social support and self-efficacy, which can sustain and support the caregiver.

c.      This study does not have any clearly defined relational statements because it has an implicit framework.

Questions 11 – 15: Research objectives, questions, or hypotheses and research variables. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 5 & 12)

11.  The author states that the research objective, question, or hypothesis was “on page 472. This is best described as a

a.      Research objective

b.      Research question

c.      Research hypothesis

d.      None of the above

12.  Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study. (Select all that apply)?

a.      End-of-life care

b.      Adult informal caregivers

c.      Caregiver self-efficacy

d.      Individuals with any health condition

e.      Caregiver stress

f.       Depression

13.  What is the conceptual definition (as defined in the review of the literature) of the following study variable: caregiver self-efficacy

a.      Self-efficacy provides a relatively precise of an individual’s ability to manage specific tasks.

b.      Caregiver self-efficacy is defined as an individual’s belief in her/his ability to carry out activities and tasks specific to caregiving.

c.      The theoretical framework for the study posits that a set of mediators, such as social support and self-efficacy, can sustain and support the caregiver.

d.      The conceptual definition of caregiver self-efficacy is not clearly provided in the review of the literature.

14.  What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study variable: caregiver stress

a.   Caregiver stress refers to individuals’ responses to a condition that is either consciously or unconsciously deemed noxious, and stress outcomes are represented by the overall well-being of caregivers, including their physical, mental, and spiritual health.

b.  The operational definition of caregiver stress is not clearly provided.  

c.   The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

d.   The Caregiver Inventory (CGI).

15.  Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study? (Select all that apply.)

a.      Age

b.      Highest education level

c.      Caregiver PSS score

d.      Marital status

e.      Gender

f.       Ethnic group

g.      Primary illness

Questions 16- 19: Research Design (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 1, 8, & 12)

16.  Which phrases best describe the research design of this study? 

a.      Descriptive

b.      Correlational

c.      Quasi-experimental

d.      Experimental

e.      Mixed methods

17.   Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study?

a.    Cross-sectional design

b.   Longitudinal design

c.    None of the above

18.  Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section?

a.  The Short Form 12v2 (SF12v12) Health Survey used in the study may be considered a treatment or intervention.

b.  Recipients of care included adults who were receiving end-of-life care, including activities such as bathing, toileting, and managing symptoms.

c.  The relationship between caregiver self-efficacy and caregiver stress among adult informal caregivers providing end-of-life care for individuals with any health condition was investigated.

d.  This study was not designed with a treatment or intervention.

19.  Does the author specifically mention that a pilot study was done prior to conducting this study? (Hint: look at the words “prior to this study”.)

a. Yes

b. No

20.  The authors indicate on page 473 of the article that the institutional review board (IRB) authorization was acquired.  This indicates than an IRB gave approval to conduct the research. In addition, an informed consent should have been provided to each participant. Although the authors did not explicitly state that informed consent was obtained, per Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), which of the following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent? (Select all that apply.)

a.  a statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study

b.  a copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal.

c.  an explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study

d.  a complete list of references to be used in the study.

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