This paper demonstrates students’ ability to apply Bardach principles to a policy issue in the
Part 1: Bardach Steps 1-4
1. Start by identifying your client’s position (e.g., NFL commissioner, IOC President, etc.).
a. Include a very short summary of the power, resources, and/or authority that your
client could bring to bear on the problem.
2. Select one policy problem and identify the root causes of the problem.
3. Describe the most important consequences of the problem.
a. Use both evidence and logic to demonstrate why the problem needs to be addressed.
Remember, one-sided arguments and exaggerated rhetoric are rarely convincing.
4. Provide four to five credible policy alternatives that merit your client’s consideration.
a. Explain the rationale behind each alternative and provide sufficient detail about how
it would work. (Proposed alternatives should be conceptually distinct rather than
slight variations of one another. One of your options should be a “do nothing” or
“status quo” alternative. Describe it in the same level of detail as your other
b. Describe the evaluation criteria that you believe should drive the decision about
which alternative to select. (Bear in mind that your criteria must be operationalized in
your Final Policy Analysis; you are not developing criteria for use during policy
implementation. Be specific about how your criteria would be operationalized in an
analysis. Some criteria may be important not because your client cares about them,
but because other stakeholders care about them. Do not describe how your
alternatives will fare with respect to the criteria; simply describe the criteria. This
Framing Memo will form the foundation for your Final Policy Analysis.
Part 2: Bardach Steps 5-7 (your paper represents step 8).
5. The student should project the performance of alternatives
6. Assess the tradeoffs among alternatives
7. Recommend an alternative.
a. With regard to step seven, make sure to explain WHY you have chosen that
alternative. The analysis should demonstrate the student understands course readings
and be based both on logic and on the presentation and critique of relevant evidence.
Make sure you briefly articulate the essential tradeoffs your client faces.
• Undergraduate students: Paper is limited to eight pages, no less than five.
• Graduate students: The paper is limited to 14 pages, no less than 10.
• This page count DOES NOT include cover page or references; applies to content of
You will be graded on the following:
Style refers to correct grammar, spelling, and paper presentation (i.e., no typos). The goal is for
professional-level writing style. (10 points)
Logic is facilitated by using an introduction (stating the purpose and scope of the paper), section
headings and subheadings, and a conclusion. It also involves logical connection of ideas
throughout the paper. (20 points)
Insight conveys your original thoughts and depth of understanding of the subject. This involves
articulating the complexity of the issue in an understandable way without over-simplifying. (30
Analysis involves doing what the assignment asked for and making it clear that you understand
the tools involved. This involves using correct terminology, providing a range of types of
evidence to support your argument, and reaching a conclusion based on that evidence. (30
Documentation should include an appropriate number and range of sources. They should be
presented in APA style of referencing. Class texts or other course readings should be
Direct quotes should include page numbers. (10 points)
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