What is the yield of ATP when each of the following substrates is completely oxidized to CO2 by a mammalian cell homogenate? Assume that glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation are all occurring. Assume the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle is active in the cells in question. DO NOT USE 2.5ATP/NADH or 1.5ATP/FADH2 – use the exact ratio for humans. It might be easiest to count the number of protons pumped in each circumstance.
C. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
F. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate